LP3ES

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Dec 12th
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Problem analysis

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Problem analysis

The main/focal problem addressed by the project is the need to reduce or end violence committed by young people as manifestations of their unachieved aspirations. Since the Reformation Era in 1998 the engagement of young people in violent conflict has always been high in Indonesia. This is due to the fact that youth are the main actors in reform, yet they are rarely involved in the decision-making process, thus they use violence to express their anger and dissatisfaction. In addition, youth rallies organized to voice their aspirations without violence as a feature of democracy often ended in violence. If more young people resort to violence, the challenge for consolidation of democracy will be much more severe. Those phenomena will worsen as Indonesia’s youth population will double by 2030. The Indicator Institute in 2013 showed that 43% of young people in Indonesia agree with money politics which means there is potential that 59.6 million voters may create political chaos. Meanwhile, data from the Habibie Center shows that 16% of violence cases in Papua are incited by young people and 50% of such youth violence in Papua is related to natural resources-related conflicts. On religious issues, the latest data shows that the tendency of young people to use violence continues significantly. According to the Lakip Institute in 2010, 48.9% of senior high school students agree with religious radicalism, while in 2014 the Setara Institute showed that 1 of 14 students interviewed in Jakarta supports radicalism. These studies show that radicalism among students is caused by, among others, the lack of adequate means of communication between students that would allow them to engage in interfaith dialogue. In terms of social identity issues, the most frequent forms of violence to take place are youth brawls and bullying, both in general caused by ethnic differences or other sentiments as well as clashes between student gangs. These types of youth violence are more commonly found in urban areas due to their high degree of heterogeneity and social fragmentation. Since more than a half of youth are living in urban areas, the problem of violence is more acute in urban areas including Jakarta, Makassar, and Jayapura. In this context, social dynamics in Jakarta, Makassar, and Jayapura in the last five years have been showing a disconcerting phenomenon of youth violence, such as robberies bullying, ethnic-based violence between youth groups, and fights between university campuses. According to the Makassar Police data, from 2003 to 2011, there were 60 cases of violence involving college students from nine higher education institutions in Makassar. Those acts of violence are incited by distrust among youth, among university students, due to campus politics and influenced by campus external factors, particularly ethnicity and religious identity. Those cases in general took place because of an absence of a medium for students to channel their aspirations and demands to their universities and to security forces. These have increased the frictions that have led to violence. A study shows that almost 40% of communal violence in Indonesia are incited by youth fights (Varshney, Panggabean, dan Tadjoeddin; 2004). In Papua, there are cases of ethnic contestation between highland and coastal communities in Papua, or between the Bugis-Makassar-Toraja ethnicities in Makassar. In Jakarta, organizations are established that bring forward the local ethnicity based organizations such as Pemuda Forum Mahasiswa Betawi. These drivers increased religious, ethnic, and political-based violence, more discords between ethnic/youth/religious organizations, as well as conflict between students in 4,446 higher education institutions (Directorate General of Higher Education, 2016), and violence between senior and fresh-year students in cities in Indonesia.

This project complements previous initiatives of LP3ES because it integrates social media into the mechanisms of reducing violence. Additionally, the monitoring done in social media is well balanced with deliberative and consultative forums, in which youths will discuss their findings, their concerns and their proposed solutions to tackle conflict. This innovation will ensure to be appealing for the youth as it merges social media with actual social gatherings. It will encourage youths to participate in the critical necessity of engaging in dialogue by developing and implementing EWS for youth, to build a room for youth deliberation, and to disseminate democracy without violence in an integrated and sustainable manner. The lessons learned from past LP3ES projects showed us that different stakeholders and youth groups must be the front-liners of conflict reduction, where often political leaders will follow the peaceful behavior. In regards to the already existing Early Warning System developed by UNDP-TOF, which targets mainly government officials, LP3ES believes that youth should have also access to such a tool. It is therefore that this project will adapt and adjust the EWS to be reachable to young citizens, and not only to officials. LP3ES added value is the strong community empowerment experience, as well as the emphasis of creating a journalism and research-based application.

 

Optimalkan Lahan Untuk Ketahanan Pangan

Optimalkan Lahan Untuk Ketahanan Pangan

Oleh: Mahyudi Mahar

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